Pengaruh Perbandingan Kitosan Dan Selulosa Dari Serat Daun Nanas (Ananas comosus) Terhadap Pembuatan Bioplastik

Tengku Urai Ani, Idral Amri, Zultiniar Zultiniar

Abstract


Pineapple leaf waste can be utilized as a raw material for synthesis of bioplastic. the objective from this research was to determine effect of comparison of chitosan and cellulose from pineapple leaf fiber in synthesis of bioplastic and also to determine the good composition of comparison who based on mechanical properties of bioplastic. This research began by extracting cellulose from pineapple leaf fiber in three stages. The first stage was alkaline treatment (delignification), pineapple leaf fiber were cut in size ± 5 mm. Then 400 ml of 1M NaOH was added in 40 grams of fiber and heated at 80°C for 4 hours then washed and filtered. The second stage was bleaching, result of delignification process was dissolved in 5% NaOCl for 3 hours at 30°C then filtered. The third stage of acid treatment, the results of bleaching added 3% HCl and heated at 60°C for 1 hour then filtered and dried so that cellulose was obtained. Furthermore, synthesis of bioplastics was made by mixing PVA 10%, cellulose 1 gram and chitosan with comparison of chitosan: cellulose was 4:10; 5:10; 6:10. Then bioplastic mixture heated and stirred at 70°C for 20 minutes then printed on the glass mold. Repeat the synthesis for cellulose 2 gram. The good composition results in this study were chitosan with a ratio of 5:10, cellulose 2 grams and PVA 10%. Where the results of the tensile strength, elongation, biodegradation and water uptake produced were 15.36 MPa, 10%, 28.44% for 2 weeks and 82.17% respectively. The results of the analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) bioplastics showed that the surface of the bioplastic looks homogeneous and by using the ImageJ application the average of cellulose particle size was 0.246 µm.
Keywords: bioplastic, cellulose, chitosan, pineapple leaf fiber, pineapple leaf waste.


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